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Volume 20 (4); December 2021
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Review
Diagnosis and Management of Vestibular Schwannoma: Focus on Dizziness
Sung Il Nam
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):119-125.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.119
  • 3,264 View
  • 175 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is commonly encountered in the cerebellopontine angle and benign neoplasms that arise from Schwann cells of the eighth cranial nerve, which can show not only hearing loss but also various vestibular symptoms. Dizziness is the symptom causing significantly negative effect on quality of life in patients with VS. Here, we will review the dizziness in VS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impairment of Vestibular Function in Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma According to the Presence of Dizziness
    Youngjeong Lee, Se A Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jong Dae Lee
    Research in Vestibular Science.2022; 21(3): 75.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Locus of Control and Dizziness: Mediation Effect of Self-Efficacy
Yemo Jeong, Won Hwa Jin, Eun-Jin Kwon, In-Sun Kwon, Han Young Yu, Seong-Hae Jeong
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):126-133.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.126
  • 2,753 View
  • 84 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
An attention to psychological aspects can clarify the understanding and management of patients with unresolved dizziness/vertigo. Thus, we study the locus of control and the mediation effect of self-efficacy for assessing the relationship between locus of control and dizziness/vertigo in a referral-based dizziness clinic.
Methods
We analyzed the dizziness-specific locus of control and self-efficacy using the modified questionnaire in 117 consecutive dizzy patients (34 males; age range, 20–74 years). In addition to the visual analogue scale-dizziness for evaluation of subjective dizziness, the following items were further evaluated; Korean Dizziness Handicap Inventory, Korean Beck Depression Inventory II, and Korean Beck Anxiety Inventory. According to the verification procedure proposed by Hayes, the mediation effect of self-efficacy verifies the relationship between the locus of control and dizziness through analysis.
Results
Except the scale of emotion such as anxiety and depression, sex, age, duration of illness, and diagnosis all did not significantly affect the dependent variables. Vestibular migraine (39.3%), vestibulopathy (15.4%), and dizziness associated with anxiety and depression (14.5%) were the most common diagnoses. On all scales, Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. In the direct effect, the internal locus of control had a tendency of aggravation of dizziness/vertigo, but in the indirect effect, the higher the internal locus of control, the higher the self-efficacy, and the higher the self-efficacy, the lower the dizziness.
Conclusions
In our study, we can assume that the locus of control can impart ambivalent effects on dizziness/vertigo. And the modulation of self-efficacy could be another treatment for patients with unresolved dizziness.
Temporal Relationship between Nystagmus and Perception during Bithermal Alternate Caloric Test
Sooyoung Kim, Eun-Jin Kwon, Hyunjin Jo, Seong-Hae Jeong
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):134-140.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.134
  • 2,647 View
  • 90 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
During caloric irritation, the spinning/rotating sensation is predominant. However, there is no report on the temporal relationship between caloric nystagmus and perception.
Methods
Consecutive 57 participants underwent bithermal caloric test in the dizziness clinic of Chungnam National University Hospital from February 2018 to September 2018. For vestibular perception, we asked the subject to report feelings of rotation and/or linear sensation during each warm and cold water irrigation period. Besides routine caloric parameters, the duration of nystagmus and vestibular sensation were analyzed.
Results
In most participants, the caloric nystagmus preceded the vestibular sensation (79.6% in right warm, 83.3% in left warm, 88.5% in right cool, and 84.6% in left cool stimuli). The precedence of perception was observed in 5 normal persons and 15 patients with vestibular migraine (n=4), unilateral vestibulopathy (n=3), and Menière’s disease (n=2), multiple systemic atrophy (n=2), cerebellar ataxia (n=2), vertebrobasilar insufficiency (n=1), and post-earthquake dizziness (n=1). The mean latency between nystagmus and perception was 11.7 seconds. And the duration of nystagmus was longer than that of perception in all conditions. Non-spinning sensations during the caloric test were also observed in some participants (26.8% in right warm, 30.3% in left warm, 29.1% in right cool, and 24.1% in left cool stimuli).
Conclusions
During the bithemal alternate caloric test, various vestibular perception and temporal relationship between perception and nystagmus suggest the bithermal caloric stimulation does not reflect only the signal originating from the horizontal canal pathway. A further validation study is needed.
Study on Platelet Indices in Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Byeong Min Lee, Chae Dong Yim, Dong Gu Hur, Seong-Ki Ahn
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):141-146.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.141
  • 2,879 View
  • 79 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is one of the most common causes of dizziness. Even though the etiology of BPPV has been widely studied, the exact mechanism remains still unclear. One of the possible factors explaining the pathophysiology of BPPV is ischemia of vestibule. In the present study, we have focused on the platelet indices including mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), and platelet crit (PCT) to assess a risk of vestibule ischemia causing BPPV.
Methods
From January 2021 to March 2021, a retrospective review was performed on 39 patients diagnosed with BPPV through vestibular nystagmography. For each platelet indices, a comparative analysis was conducted between the patient group and control group.
Results
There were no significant differences when the platelet, MPV, PDW, and PCT values were compared between the study and control group. Rather, the control group showed higher PDW value than the study group.
Conclusions
Ischemia of vestibule is one of the well-known causes of BPPV, but the current study showed that BPPV cannot be explained by the vestibule ischemia itself. Further studies are needed to identify the potential of ischemia regarding BPPV by approaching with other methods with a large study group.
Case Reports
Isolated Floccular Infarction with Impairment of High-Frequency Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex: A Case Report
Eun Hye Oh, Hyun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hwan Choi
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):147-150.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.147
  • 2,444 View
  • 44 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The flocculus plays a crucial role in control of eye movements. Based on animal experiment, it is suggested that the flocculus is important for governing vestibuleocular reflexes. In humans, an isolated floccular lesion is extremely rare. We report oculomotor abnormalities in a patient with unilateral infarction of the flocculus, and compare our results with those of previously reported patients with floccular lesion.
Bilateral Sudden Hearing Loss Caused by Basilar Artery Dissection: A Case Report
Ho Byung Lee, Jieun Roh, Hyun Min Lee, Jae-Hwan Choi
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):151-155.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.151
  • 2,810 View
  • 91 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is rare, but a possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia. A 69-year-old female patient with hypertension and atrial fibrillation presented with bilateral sudden hearing loss and vertigo without other neurological symptoms. On examination, she had left-beating horizontal nystagmus with positive head impulse on the left side. Pure tone audiometry revealed severe SNHL on both sides. Brain computed tomography angiography showed a dissection in the proximal portion of the basilar artery (BA) with occlusion of the mid-BA and bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA), which confirmed on transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA). Left common carotid angiography demonstrated retrograde blood flow into the BA and right AICA via the left posterior communicating artery. During TFCA, her right hearing loss dramatically improved. Nine days later, follow-up TFCA showed an improvement of antegrade flow of the BA and AICA. We suggest that vertebrobasilar ischemia can be suspected in patients with bilateral sudden SNHL who present with risk factors for stroke.
Endolymphatic Hydrops in Vestibular Migraine Associated with Menière’s Disease: A Report of Two Cases
Bit Na Lee, Seung-Bae Hwang, Jin-ju Kang, Sun-Young Oh
Res Vestib Sci. 2021;20(4):156-160.   Published online December 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2021.20.4.156
  • 3,351 View
  • 114 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vestibular migraine and Menière’s disease have similar clinical features which are recurrent dizziness or auditory symptoms, so it is challengeable to establish the correct diagnosis. Herein, a 31-year-old male and a 56-year-old female showed recurrent dizziness with auditory symptoms and suffered from vestibular migraine. They met the diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, but the Menière’s diagnostic criteria were not satisfied as there was no hearing loss. Delayed intravenous gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the inner ear was taken to find out of correlation of the inner ear and revealed endolymphatic hydrops. This case can improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of a vestibular migraine associated Menière’s disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Functional and Molecular Markers for Hearing Loss and Vertigo Attacks in Meniere’s Disease
    Chao-Hui Yang, Ming-Yu Yang, Chung-Feng Hwang, Kuang-Hsu Lien
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(3): 2504.     CrossRef

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science