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Volume 21 (3); September 2022
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Review
Vestibular Migraine: A Recent Update on Diagnosis and Treatment
Young Seo Kim, Hak Seung Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(3):67-74.   Published online September 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.3.67
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  • 205 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vestibular migraine (VM) is a variant of migraine resulting in vestibular symptoms in addition to symptoms typical of migraine. However, without a biomarker or a complete understanding of the pathophysiology, VM remains underrecognized and underdiagnosed. Therefore, the diagnosis of VM is still challenging. Meanwhile, VM should be clearly differentiated from other similar diseases. Here, we highlight these challenges, discuss common vestibular symptoms and clinical presentations in VM, and review the current aspects of its clinical diagnosis and evaluation. The concepts related to the treatment of VM are also discussed.
Original Articles
Impairment of Vestibular Function in Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma According to the Presence of Dizziness
Youngjeong Lee, Se A Lee, Eek-Sung Lee, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jong Dae Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(3):75-79.   Published online September 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.3.75
  • 1,985 View
  • 61 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign Schwann cell-derived slow growing tumor originating from the vestibular nerve. Here, we aimed to investigate the correlation between the presence of the dizziness symptoms and several vestibular function test results.
Methods
We analyzed 32 patients who diagnosed with VS from 2010 to 2021 in our hospital. Caloric test, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test, and video head impulse test (vHIT) were analyzed.
Results
Age, sex, pure tone audiometry, and tumor size did not show any statistical significance according to the presence or absence of dizziness. There was also no association between the presence of dizziness symptom or dizziness type and the results of the caloric test, vHIT, and cVEMP test, respectively. However, patients with dizziness had a higher rate of tumors confined to the inner auditory canal than those without dizziness.
Conclusions
In this study, the rate of complaints of dizziness was higer in patients with intracanalicular VS. The diagnostic role of vestibulsr function tests in VS is limited. The dissociation of the results of caloric test, vHIT, and cVEMP test suggest that these test are complementary.
Assessment of the Vestibuloocular Reflex in Patients with Unilateral Chronic Middle Ear Disease Using the Video Head Impulse Test: A Preliminary Study
Gi-Sung Nam, Wonyong Baek, Sung-Il Cho
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(3):80-85.   Published online September 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.3.80
  • 2,387 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aims to investigate the usefulness of the video head impulse test (vHIT) as a method for evaluating vestibular function in patients with unilateral chronic middle ear disease.
Methods
Nineteen patients with various unilateral middle ear diseases including chronic otitis media (COM), COM with cholesteatoma, and adhesive otitis media successfully underwent preoperative vHIT. The gain of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) and the presence of corrective saccades were compared between the affected ear and the healthy ear.
Results
A total of eight male and 11 female patients with a mean age of 43.1 years were included in this retrospective study. Twelve ears had COM, four had COM with cholesteatoma, and three had adhesive otitis media. A positive history of vertigo or dizziness was reported in 36.8% of the cases. The VOR gain of the affected ears and the healthy ears were 0.97±0.16 vs. 1.00±0.08 in the horizontal canal, 0.91±0.11 vs. 0.87±0.11 in the anterior canal, and 0.87±0.17 vs. 0.99±0.12 in the posterior canal, respectively. Only VOR gain of the posterior canal was significantly decreased compared with healthy ears.
Conclusions
The average VOR gains in the patients with chronic middle ear disease were within the pre-defined values of normality; however, when compared quantitatively, posterior canal gain of affected ears was significantly decreased compared to healthy ears. Our results can be explained by the anatomical proximity of the ampulla of the posterior canal and middle ear space.
Case Reports
Fourth Nerve Paresis plus Crossed Horner Syndrome in Acute Leukemia
Sumin Kim, Sung-Hee Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(3):86-88.   Published online September 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.3.86
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  • 49 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A 29-year-old patient with diplopia showed a unilateral fourth nerve palsy combined with a Horner syndrome on the opposite side. Magnetic resonance images disclosed a focal hemorrhage in the left dorsal midbrain, affecting the nucleus of the fourth nerve and adjacent oculosympathetic fibers. Further evaluations including a bone marrow biopsy confirmed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The combination of ocular motor and oculosympathetic palsy has a distinct localizing value. Fourth nerve palsy ipsilateral to Horner syndrome locates lesion in the cavernous sinus, while contralateral fourth nerve palsy locates the lesion in the midbrain.
Vestibular Neuritis after COVID-19 Vaccination
So-Hyun Kim, Se Hwan Hwang
Res Vestib Sci. 2022;21(3):89-92.   Published online September 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2022.21.3.89
  • 2,296 View
  • 110 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly and was declared a pandemic. In this situation, vaccination for COVID-19 is important and has been prompted in many countries. However, a number of adverse events have been reported for the Pfizer, Moderna, and AstraZeneca vaccines. Otolaryngologic adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination were reported, including several cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Vestibular neuritis (VN) is an acute vestibular syndrome that causes acute and spontaneous vertigo due to unilateral vestibular deafferentiation, leading to nausea or vomiting and unsteadiness that can last from days to weeks. Neurotropism for the cochleovestibular nerve, immunoglobulin G mediated immune off-target reaction, and reactivation of latent viruses are hypothesized to be etiologies. Herein, the case of a 49-year-old female who developed VN after COVID-19 vaccination is presented. Although the association between VN and COVID-19 vaccination remains unclear, clinicians should be aware that VN may occur as an adverse event of COVID-19 vaccination.

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science