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Volume 23 (1); March 2024
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Review Article
Virtual reality simulators for temporal bone dissection: overcoming limitations of previous models
Temuulen Batsaikhan, Young Joon Seo
Res Vestib Sci. 2024;23(1):1-10.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2024.002
  • 1,189 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Temporal bone dissection is a critical skill for otolaryngology trainees: however, it is challenging to master due to the complex anatomy and limited exposure to cadaveric specimens. The aim of this review was to develop and evaluate a novel virtual reality (VR) simulator for temporal bone dissection, addressing the limitations of previous simulators reported in the literature. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to September 2022. The search was limited to studies that evaluated the effectiveness of VR simulators for temporal bone dissection. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The results showed that VR simulators can significantly improve temporal bone dissection skills, including anatomical knowledge, instrument handling, and surgical performance. Compared to traditional training methods, VR simulation was associated with faster learning curves, better retention of skills, and greater confidence among trainees. However, some limitations of current VR models were identified, including the lack of haptic feedback, limited realism, and short duration of practice. VR simulators are a valuable adjunct to traditional methods for temporal bone dissection training. The recently developed VR simulator addressed the limitations of previous simulators and demonstrated its potential to enhance the training of clinicians in temporal bone dissection. Future directions for research include further validation of the simulator and exploration of its potential for use in clinical settings.
Original Articles
Comparison of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials between low and high tone idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss
Sang-Wook Park, Sang Yun Lee, Somi Ryu, Jung Woo Lee, Chae Dong Yim, Dong Gu Hur, Seong-Ki Ahn
Res Vestib Sci. 2024;23(1):11-15.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2024.001
  • 645 View
  • 8 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) have been reported to be useful in evaluating not only vestibular function but also the prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) patients. Even though low frequency, high frequency, and all frequency-involved ISSNHL groups tend to show varied clinical characteristics, there is a lack of data using VEMP results to analyze these subgroups. We investigated if the VEMP test is a valuable tool to predict recovery from hearing loss in association with different frequencies.
Methods
A total of 26 ISSNHL patients were divided into three different groups impaired with low tone (ascending type), high tone (descending type), and all tones (flat type) based on the initial audiograms. Each group included five, 10, and 11 patents, respectively, and their VEMP results were compared between the three subgroups.
Results
Abnormal VEMP results were found in five of the total 26 ISSNHL patients (19.2%). Two (40.0%), one (10.0%), and two (18.1%) patients of low tone, high tone, and all tone hearing loss groups, respectively, showed abnormal VEMP results. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the three groups.
Conclusions
Even though VEMP is known as a valuable tool for predicting the prognosis of ISSNHL patients, it does not seem to reflect frequency-sensitive aspects of ISSNHL.
The clinical significance of arterial stiffness in the differential diagnosis of vertigo
Bang-Hoon Cho, Jae-Myung Kim, Young-In Kim, Seung-Han Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2024;23(1):16-23.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2024.003
  • 699 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a known indicator of arterial stiffness reflecting vascular damage. However, there are few reports of the relationship between PWV and dizziness/vertigo of a vascular origin. We investigated whether the PWV value could be useful as an ancillary measurement for identifying the etiology of dizziness/vertigo.
Methods
We enrolled dizzy patients from March 2016 to December 2018. The patients with posterior circulation stroke presenting with dizziness/vertigo were categorized as having central vertigo. The patients with vertigo due to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Ménière disease, or acute unilateral vestibulopathy were categorized as having peripheral vertigo. The PWV value, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and traditional vascular risk factors were collected.
Results
We consecutively enrolled a total of 93 participants. The PWV values were higher in the central vertigo group (p<0.001), but ABI did not differ between the groups. Among the vascular risk factors, the number of patients with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and male patients was significantly higher in the central vertigo group. The brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values were higher in the central vertigo group, even after adjusting for confounding factors (p<0.01). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the sensitivity was 74% and specificity was 81% when the mean baPWV value was 14.78 m/sec.
Conclusions
Increased baPWV values were observed in patients with dizziness/vertigo due to stroke. Measurement of the baPWV value could be an ancillary test for evaluating the cause of dizziness/vertigo, even though more convincing evidence is still required.
Case Reports
Complete ocular tilt reaction with subjective visual vertical tilt in a patient with a medial prefrontal cortex lesion: a case report
Hyung Lee, Hyun Ah Kim
Res Vestib Sci. 2024;23(1):24-27.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.136
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 61-year-old male patient undergoing chemotherapy for esophageal cancer presented with symptoms of rightward tilting while both sitting and walking. A neurological examination revealed a head tilt, skew deviation with hypertrophy of the left eye, and a rightward shift in his gait. No spontaneous nystagmus was observed, and the vestibulo-ocular reflex was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a suspected metastatic lesion in the right medial prefrontal cortex. Following the initiation of levetiracetam treatment, the patient demonstrated marked improvement, with the resolution of both head tilt and skew deviation within 1 month. Traditionally, the ocular tilt reaction has been attributed to unilateral or asymmetric dysfunction of the graviceptive pathways extending from the utricle to the upper midbrain lesions. However, this case highlights the potential involvement of the prefrontal cortex in the ocular tilt reaction. Further research is warranted on the role of the prefrontal cortex within the vestibular system.
A case of cerebellopontine angle meningioma presenting as neurovascular compression syndrome of the 8th cranial nerve
Jeongin Jang, Sung Kwang Hong, Joonho Song, Hyung-Jong Kim, Hyo-Jeong Lee
Res Vestib Sci. 2024;23(1):28-31.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2023.141
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 54-year-old female patient presented with paroxysmal tinnitus and vertigo for 2 years, which have repeatedly occurred while rotating her neck, and lasted about 10 seconds. An anticonvulsant medication was prescribed with a diagnosis of microvascular compression syndrome on the 8th cranial nerve and audiovestibular evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan were appointed a week later. In her next visit, she reported the disappearance of paroxysmal audiovestibular symptoms after medication. In the left ear, canal paresis and abnormal auditory brainstem response were observed. In MRI, a large meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle in the vicinity of the internal auditory canal orifice was detected, that was surgically resected by a neurosurgeon. After surgical removal of the tumor, she reported continuous dizziness due to vestibular nerve injury, but the paroxysmal attack of tinnitus and vertigo disappeared without anticonvulsant medication. This case suggests that an imaging study is mandatory when diagnosing microvascular compression syndrome on the 8th cranial nerve.
A case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia manifesting as sudden sensorineural hearing loss with vertigo
Young Jae Lee, Wonyong Baek, Gi-Sung Nam
Res Vestib Sci. 2024;23(1):32-36.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21790/rvs.2024.004
  • 703 View
  • 11 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare vascular condition characterized by the elongation, widening, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar artery. It can lead to various symptoms due to compression of cranial nerves and brainstem structures. We report a rare case of VBD presenting as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) with vertigo and spontaneous downbeat nystagmus in a 65-year-old woman with a history of hypertension. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a tortuous and dilated right vertebrobasilar artery compressing the brainstem and left 8th cranial nerve root entry zone, without signs of acute cerebellar stroke. The compression of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and cervicomedullary junction was also noted, suggesting a vascular cause for her symptoms. Following high-dose steroid treatment, the patient showed significant hearing improvement. This case underscores the importance of considering VBD in patients with unexplained SSNHL and vertigo, highlighting the role of detailed vascular imaging in the diagnosis and management of such cases.

Res Vestib Sci : Research in Vestibular Science